What is Cataract?
Cataract is a disease that occurs when the natural lens in the eye loses its transparency and decreases vision. It is a progressive disease that usually occurs in the elderly. However, it can be seen in all age groups, including newborns. The lens loses its transparency and moves continuously until the image disappears completely. The rate of progression of the disease varies from person to person. It may progress more rapidly in those who have a history of concomitant disease such as diabetes or a blow to the eye. It is not uncommon to develop glaucoma (eye pressure) accompanying the disease in the very advanced stages of the disease.
The most important cause of cataract is old age. Apart from this, it can be a factor in some diseases such as heredity, traumas, some drugs, diabetes, long-term use of cortisone, uveitis (intraocular inflammation), eye pressure. Exposure to excess ultraviolet light and vitamin C deficiency can accelerate the disease. Cataracts can also be seen in infancy and childhood. The most important cause of congenital cataracts may be the drugs used by the mother during pregnancy and the diseases she had. It can affect one eye or both eyes. We may be surprised as well. Symptoms of cataract; Blurred vision, sensitivity to light, difficulty in reading, inability to obtain clear vision despite changing glasses frequently, fringing of lights especially at night, sometimes double vision, change in the color of the pupil may occur.
TREATMENT OF CATARACT
There is no treatment for cataracts with medication or glasses. The only treatment is surgical. The lens that lost its transparency is removed by surgery and a new lens is put in its place. Cataract surgeries are performed seamlessly with the phaco technique, which is popularly called laser. The patient is not unconscious during the operation. The eye is anesthetized with just drops and after an operation that lasts for about 10-15 minutes, the patient is sent home. After about 12 hours, the eye is left open. It is not touched by water for about 5 days.
Performing the surgery, placing the new lens and its final state are seen respectively. One of the most asked questions; When should the surgery be done? Surgery can be performed if the visual impairment reaches the level that affects the daily work of the patient. It is not expected that the eye will be completely closed, as in the past. On the contrary, complete closure of the eye complicates the operation and prolongs its duration. Congenital cataracts should be operated as soon as they are detected. If expected, lazy eye and crossed eyes may occur. Eyes under the age of 3 are not put in a lens during the operation, glasses or contact lenses are used after the operation until they are 3-4 years old. Then the surgery is performed again to put the lens. One of the frequently asked questions, how should the lenses be put into the eye? Since these lenses will remain in the eye for a lifetime, they must be fully compatible with the eyes. The lens that is left in the eye after the surgery should be capable of preventing the whitening of the posterior membrane. Will cataracts recur? It is not possible for a cataract to recur. However, the posterior membrane left in the eye may turn white. In this case, it can be treated in 1-2 minutes without surgery with a laser called YAG laser. Wearing glasses after surgery is also a frequently asked question. Lens measurement is made with a special tool. Glasses number is calculated as 0 for far, but if the patient has astigmatism, special lenses should be worn for this. Glasses for close reading are edible. Or, if the patient prefers and the patient’s eye is suitable, both far and near lenses can be placed.
FORMATION STAGES OF CATARACT;